Publications of Charlotte Esser's group


Merches K, Schiavi A, Weighardt H, Steinwachs S, Teichweyde N, Förster I, Hochrath K, Schumak B, Ventura N, Petzsch P, Köhrer K, Esser C: AHR signaling dampens inflammatory signature in neonatal skin γδ T cells. Int J Mol Sci 21(6): 2249, 2020. doi: 10.3390/ijms21062249

Esser C, Hochrath K, Schikowski T, Haarmann-Stemmann T: COVID-19 research: toxicological input urgently needed! Arch Toxicol 2020. doi: 10.1007/s00204-020-02803-5

Häselbarth L, Ouwens DM, Teichweyde N, Hochrath K, Merches K, Esser C: The small chain fatty acid butyrate antagonizes the TCR-stimulation-induced metabolic shift in murine epidermal gamma delta T cells. EXCLI J 19: 334-350, 2020. doi: 10.17179/excli2020-1123

Vogel CFA, Van Winkle LS, Esser C, Haarmann-Stemmann T: The aryl hydrocarbon receptor as a target of environmental stressors – implications for pollution-mediated stress and inflammatory responses. Redox Biol 2020. doi: 10.1016/j.redox.2020.101530

Merches K, Schiavi A, Weighardt H, Steinwachs S, Teichweyde N, Förster I, Hochrath K, Schumak B, Ventura N, Petzsch P, Köhrer K, Esser C: AHR signaling dampens inflammatory signature in neonatal skin γδ T cells. Int J Mol Sci 21(6): 2249, 2020. doi: 10.3390/ijms21062249


Vogeley C, Esser C, Tüting T, Krutmann J, Haarmann-Stemmann T: Role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in environmentally induced skin aging and skin carcinogenesis. Int J Mol Sci 20(23): 6005, 2019. doi: 10.3390/ijms20236005

Haupeltshofer S, Leichsenring T, Berg S, Pedreiturria X, Joachim SC, Tischoff I, Otte J-M, Bopp T, Fantini MC, Esser C, Willbold D, Gold R, Faissner S, Kleiter I: Smad7 in intestinal CD4+ T cells determine autoimmunity in a spontaneious model of multiple sclerosis. PNAS 116(51): 25860-25869, 2019. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1905955116

Cossarizza A, … Esser C, … Zychlinsky A: Guidelines for the use of flow cytometry and cell sorting in immunological studies (second edition). Eur J Immunol 49(10): 1457-1973, 2019. doi: 10.1002/eji.201970107

Esser C, Hochrath K, Teichweyde N, Krutmann J, Chang H-D: Beyond sequencing: fast and easy microbiome profiling by flow cytometry. Arch Toxicol 93(9): 2703-2704, 2019. doi: 10.1007/s00204-019-02527-1

Fiala GJ, Schaffer AM, Merches K, Morath A, Swann J, Herr LA, Hils M, Esser C, Minguet S, Schamel WWA: Proximal Lck promoter-driven Cre function is limited in neonatal and ineffective in adult γδ T cell development. J Immunol 203(2): 569-579, 2019. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1701521


Esser C, Lawrence BP, Sherr DH, Perdew GH, Puga A, Barouki R, Coumoul X: Old receptor, new tricks-the ever-expanding universe of aryl hydrocarbon receptor functions. Report from the 4th AHR Meeting, 29-31 August 2018 in Paris, France. Int J Mol Sci 19(11): 3603, 2018. doi: 10.3390/ijms19113603

Fueldner C, Kohlschmidt J, Riemschneider S, Schulze F, Zoldan K, Esser C, Hauschildt S, Lehmann J: Benzo(a)pyrene attenuates the pattern-recognition-receptor induced proinflammatory phenotype of murine macrophages by inducing IL-10 expression in an aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent manner. Toxicology 409: 80-90, 2018. doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2018.07.011

Riemschneider S, Kohlschmidt J, Fueldner C, Esser C, Hauschildt S, Lehmann J: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation by benzo(a)pyrene inhibits proliferation of myeloid precursor cells and alters the differentiation state as well as the functional phenotype of murine bone marrow-derived macrophages. Toxicol Lett 296: 106-113, 2018. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2018.07.050

Pollet M*, Shaik S*, Mescher M*, Frauenstein K, Tigges J, Braun S, Sondenheimer K, Kaveh M, Bruhs A, Meller S, Homey B, Schwarz A, Esser C, Douki T, Vogel CF, Krutmann J, Haarmann-Stemmann T: The AHR represses nucleotide excision repair and apoptosis and contributes to UV-induced skin carcinogenesis. Cell Death Differ 2018. doi: 10.1038/s41418-018-0160-1 (* equal contribution)

Esser C, Haarmann-Stemmann T, Hochrath K, Schikowski T, Krutmann J: AHR and the issue of immunotoxicity. Curr Opinion Toxicol 10: 91-97, 2018. doi: 10.1016/j.cotox.2018.03.001


Cossarizza A, … Esser C, …. et al.: Guidelines for the use of flow cytometry and cell sorting in immunological studies. Eur J Immunol 47: 1584-1797, 2017. doi: 10.1002/eji.201646632

Hammerschmidt-Kamper C, Biljes D, Merches K, Steiner I, Daldrup T, Bol-Schoenmakers M, Pieters RHH, Esser C: Indole-3-carbinol, a plant nutrient and AhR-Ligand precursor, supports oral tolerance against OVA and improves peanut allergy symptoms in mice. Plos One 12(6): e0180321, 2017. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0180321

Biljes D, Hammerschmidt-Kamper C, Merches K, Esser C: The aryl hydrocarbon receptor in T cells contributes to sustaining oral tolerance against ovalbumin in a mouse model. EXCLI J 16: 291-301, 2017. doi: 10.17179/excli2017-168

Merches K, Haarmann-Stemmann T, Weighardt H, Krutmann J, Esser C: AHR in the skin: From the mediator of chloracne to a therapeutic panacea? Current Opinion Toxicol 2: 79-86, 2017. doi: 10.1016/j.cotox.2017.02.002


Haas K, Weighardt H, Deenen R, Köhrer K, Clausen B, Zahner S, Boukamp P, Bloch W, Krutmann J, Esser C: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor in keratinocytes is essential for murine skin barrier integrity. J Invest Dermatol 136(11): 2260-2269, 2016. doi: 10.1016/j.jid.2016.06.627

Berg J, Mahmoudjanlou Y, Duscha A, Massa M, Thöne J, Esser C, Gold R, Haghikia A: The immunomodulatory effect of laquinimod in CNS autoimmunity is mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. J Neuroimmunol 298: 9-15, 2016. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2016.06.003

Brandstätter O*, Schanz O*, Vorac J*, König J, Mori T, Maruyama T, Korkowski M, Haarmann-Stemmann T, von Smolinski D, Schultze JL, Abel J, Esser C, Takeyama H, Weighardt H*, Förster I*: Balancing intestinal and systemic inflammation through cell typespecific expression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor. Sci Rep 6: 26091, 2016. doi: 10.1038/srep26091 (* equal contribution)

Eckers A, Jakob S, Heiss C, Haarmann-Stemmann T, Goy C, Brinkmann V, Cortese-Krott MM, Sansone R, Esser C, Ale-Agha N, Altschmied J, Ventura N, Haendeler J: The aryl hydrocarbon receptor promotes aging phenotypes. Sci Rep 6: 19618, 2016. doi: 10.1038/srep19618

Pilz C, Feyerabend T, Sonner J, Redaelli C, Peter K, Kunze A, Haas K, Esser C, Schäkel K, Wick W, Rodewald HR, Lanz TV, Platten M: Normal mast cell numbers in the tissues of AhR-deficient mice. Exp Dermatol 25(1): 62-63, 2016. doi: 10.1111/exd.12864

Esser C: The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor in Immunity: Tools and Potential. In: Cuturi MC, Anegon I (Hrsg.): Suppression and Regulation of Immune Responses, Methods and Protocols, Volume II. Humana press, New York, 2016. ISBN 978-1-4939-3138-5.


Biljes B, Hammerschmidt-Kamper C, Kadow S, Diel P, Weigt C, Burkart V, Esser C:  Impaired glucose and lipid metabolism in ageing aryl hydrocarbon receptor deficient mice. EXCLI Journal (14): 1153-1163, 2015. [open access]

Haarmann-Stemmann T, Esser C, Krutmann J: The Janus-faced role of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) signaling in the skin: Consequences for prevention and treatment of skin disorders. J Invest Dermatol 135(11): 2572-2576, 2015. [pubmed]

Esser C, Rannug A: The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor in Barrier Organ Physiology, Immunology, and Toxicology. Pharmacol Rev 67(2): 259-279, 2015. [pubmed]

Hoffmann B, Esser C: Biologische Wirkungsweisen von Partikeln bei der Allergieentstehung. Allergologie 38: 1–7, 2015.


Neumann C, Heinrich F, Neumann K, Junghans V, Mashreghi MF, Ahlers J, Janke M, Rudolph C, Mockel-Tenbrinck N, Kühl AA, Heimesaat MM, Esser C, Im SH, Radbruch A, Rutz S, Scheffold A: Role of Blimp-1 in programing Th effector cells into IL-10 producers. J Exp Med 211(9): 1807-1819, 2014. [pubmed]

Mangerich A, Esser C: Chemical warfare in the First World War: reflections 100 years later. Arch Toxicol 88(11): 1909-1911, 2014. [pubmed]

Esser C: A fat story - antigen presentation by butyrophilin 3A1 to γδ T cells. Cell Mol Immunol 11(1): 5-7, 2014. [pubmed]

Esser C: The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) as a Mediator of Adverse Immune Reactions. In: Molecular Immunotoxicology. Corsini E, Van Loveren H (Eds). Wiley Verlag 2014.


Frauenstein K, Sydlik U, Tigges J, Majora M, Wiek C, Hanenberg H, Abel J, Esser C, Fritsche E, Krutmann J, Haarmann-Stemmann T: Evidence for a novel anti-apoptotic pathway in keratinocytes involving the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, E2F1 and checkpoint kinase 1. Cell Death & Differentiation 20(10): 1425-1434, 2013. [pubmed]

Esser C, Bargen I, Weighardt H, Haarmann-Stemmann T, Krutmann J: Functions of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor in the skin. Seminars in Immunopathology 35(6): 677-691, 2013. [pubmed]

Esser C, Götz C: Filling the gaps: need for research on cell-specific xenobiotic metabolism in the skin. Arch Toxicol 87(10): 1873-1875, 2013. [pubmed]

Wilhelmi V, Fischer U, Weighardt H, Schulze-Osthoff K, Nickel C, Stahlmecke B, Kuhlbusch TA, Scherbart AM, Esser C, Schins RPF, Albrecht C. Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Induce Necrosis and Apoptosis in Macrophages in a p47phox- and Nrf2-Independent Manner. PLoS One 8(6): e65704, 2013. [pubmed]


Esser C: Biology of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor: report of an international and interdisciplinary conference. Arch Toxicol  86(8): 1323-1329, 2012. [pubmed]


Kiss EA, Vonarbourg C, Kopfmann S, Hobeika E, Finke D, Esser C, Diefenbach A: Natural aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands control organogenesis of intestinal lymphoid follicles. Science 334 (6062): 1561-1565, 2011. [pubmed]

Jux B, Kadow S, Luecke S, Rannug A, Krutmann J, Esser C: The aryl hydrocarbon receptror mediates UVB adiation-induced skin tanning. J Invest Dermatol 131(1): 203-210, 2011. [pubmed]

Kadow S, Jux B, Zahner SP, Wingerath B, Chmill S, Clausen BE, Hengstler J, Esser C: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor is critical for homeostasis of invariant gamma-delta T cells in the murine epidermis. J Immunology 187 (6): 3104-3110, 2011. [pubmed]

Perner D, Vierkötter A, Sugiri D, Matsui M, Ranft U, Esser C, Ethève S, Goralczyk R, Kaneko N, Yamamoto A, Morita A, Krutmann J, Krämer U: Association between sun-exposure, smoking behaviour and plasma antioxidant levels with the different manifestation of skin ageing signs between Japanese and German women – A pilot study. J Dermatol Sci 62 (2): 138-140, 2011.

Eckers A, Sauerbier E, Anwar-Mohamed A, Hamann I, Esser C, Schroeder P, El-Kadi AO, Klotz LO: Detection of a functional xenobiotic response element in a widely employed FoxO-responsive reporter construct. Arch Biochem Biophys 516 (2): 138-145, 2011. [pubmed]


Chmill S, Kadow S, Winter M, Weighardt H, Esser C: 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-P-dioxin impairs stable establishment of oral tolerance in mice. Toxicol Sci 118(1):98-107, 2010.

Luecke S, Backlund M, Jux B, Esser C, Krutmann J,  Rannug A: The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a novel regulator of human melanogenesis. Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research 23 (6): 828-833, 2010.

Esser C, Krutmann J: UV-Strahlung und Pigmentierung: Arylhydrocarbonrezeptor - "a new kid on the block".
Der Hautarzt 61 (7): 561-566, 2010.


Jux B, Kadow S, Esser C: Langerhans cell maturation and contact hypersensitivity are impaired in aryl hydrocarbon receptor-null mice. J Immunol 182 (11): 6709-6717, 2009.

Esser C, Jux B, Kadow S, Chmill S, Hübinger J, Frericks M: Cell specific action and toxicity of the AhR: Focus immune system. Toxicol Lett 189, Suppl. 1, S55, 2009.

Esser C, Jux B: Small chemicals, bioactivation, and the immune system - a fragile balance of i-tox and benefits? Chemistry & Biodiversity 6 (11): 2138-2143, 2009.

Goergens A, Frericks M, Esser C: The AhR is only marginally involved in the anti-leukemic effects of its ligand curcumin. Anticancer Research 29 (11): 4657-4664, 2009.

Esser C: The immune phenotype of arylhydrocarbon receptor null mouse mutants: not a simple mirror of AhR overactivation. Biochem Pharmacol  77 (4): 597-607, 2009.

Esser C, Rannug A, Stockinger B: The aryl hydrocarbon receptor and immunity. Trends Immunol 30 (9): 447-454, 2009.

Kadow S, Jux B, Chmill S, Esser C: Small molecules as fiends and foes of the immune system. Future Medicinal Chemistry 1 (9): 1583-1591, 2009.


Stutte S*, Jux B*, Esser C, Förster I: CD24a expression levels discriminate Langerhans cells from dermal dendritic cells in murine skin and lymph nodes. J Invest Dermatol 128 (6) 1470-1475, 2008.( * Equal contribution)

Frericks M, Burgoon L, Zacharewsky T, Esser C: Promoter analysis of TCDD-inducible genes in a thymic epithelial cell line indicates the potential for cell-specific transcription factor crosstalk in the AhR response. Tox Appl Pharmacol 232 (2) 268-279, 2008.

Frericks M, Esser C: A toolbox of novel murine housekeeping genes identified by meta-analysis of large scale gene expression profiles. BBA – Gene Regulatory Mechanisms 1779 (12): 830-837, 2008.


Rockel N, Esser C, Grether-Beck S, Warskulat U, Flögel U, Schwarz A, Schwarz T, Yarosh D, Häussinger D, Krutmann J: The osmolyte taurine protects against ultraviolet B radiation-induced immunosuppression. Journal of Immunology 179 (6): 3604-3612, 2007.

Frericks M., Meissner M, Esser C: Microarray analysis of the AHR system: tissue-specific flexibility in signal and target genes.  Tox Appl Pharmacol 220 (3): 320-332, 2007.

Krämer U, Illig T, Grune T, Krutmann J, Esser C: Strong associations of psoriasis with antigen processing LMP and transport genes TAP differ by gender and phenotype.   Genes and Immunity 8 (6): 513-517, 2007.
Schwenk M, Sack U, Esser C, Klein R: Diagnostic relevance of the determination of lymphocyte subpopulations in environmental medicine. Int J Hyg Environ Health 210, 177-198, 2007. 


Krämer U, Esser C: Cigarette smoking, metabolic gene polymorphism, and psoriasis. J Invest Dermatol 126 (3): 693-694, 2006.

Frericks M, Temchura VV, Majora M, Stutte S, Esser C: Transcriptional signatures of immune cells in aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-proficient and AHR-deficient mice.  Biol Chem 387 (9): 1219-1226, 2006.

Bernshausen T, Jux B, Esser C, Abel J, Fritsche E: Tissue distribution and function of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Repressor (AhRR) in C57BL/6 and Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor deficient mice. Archives of Toxicology 80(4): 206-211, 2006.

Valet G, Esser C: Data sieving analysis as a novel method to asses immunotoxic exposure to dioxins retrospectively. Int Immunopharmacol 6 (8): 1374-1375, 2006.

Esser C: The arylhydrocarbon receptor: more than a tox story (Guest-Editorial). Biol Chem 387(9): 1147, 2006.

Esser C: Immunotoxicology. In: Comprehensive Medicinal Chemistry II. J. Taylor and D. Triggie (eds.). Vol. 5: Adme-Tox Approaches. Elsevier Science, 2006, pp. 1-15.


Temchura VV, Frericks M, Nacken W, Esser C: Role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in thymocyte emigration in vivo. Eur. J. Immunol 35 (9): 2738-2747, 2005.

Esser C, Tomiuk J: Reporting Hardy-Weinberg tests in case-control studies: reasons for caution but not for panic reactions. J. Invest. Dermatol. 124: 1082-1083, 2005.

Esser C, Steinwachs S, Herder C, Majora M, Lai Z.-W: Effects of a single-dose of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, given at post-puberty, in senescent mice. Toxicol. Letters 157 (2): 89-98, 2005.

Majora M, Frericks M, Temchura V, Esser C: Detection of a novel population of fetal thymocytes characterized by preferential emigration and a TCR-gamma-delta T cell fate after dioxin exposure. Int. Immunopharmacol. 5: 1659-1674, 2005.

Esser C: Dioxins and the Immune System. In: Encyclopedic Reference of Immunotoxicology. H-W Vohr (Ed.) - Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 208-211, 2005.

Schade N, Esser C, Krutmann J: Ultraviolet B radiation-induced immunosuppression: molecular mechanism and cellular alterations. Photochem. Photobiol. Science 4: 699-708, 2005.